|Stage||Extent of Disease||Seminoma||Nonseminoma|
|IA||Testis only, no vascular/lymphatic invasion (T1)||Radiation therapy||RPLND or observation|
|IB||Testis only, with vascular/lymphatic invasion (T2), or extension through tunica albuginea (T2), or involvement of spermatic cord (T3) or scrotum (T4)||Radiation therapy||RPLND|
|IIA||Nodes < 2 cm||Radiation therapy||RPLND or chemotherapy often followed by RPLND|
|IIB||Nodes 2–5 cm||Radiation therapy||RPLND +/– adjuvant chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by RPLND|
|IIC||Nodes > 5 cm||Chemotherapy||Chemotherapy, often followed by RPLND|
|III||Distant metastases||Chemotherapy||Chemotherapy, often followed by surgery (biopsy or resection)|
Wednesday, April 22, 2009
Thursday, April 2, 2009
1q. Vascular complications of acute pancreatitis include the following except
(a) Splenic vein thrombosis
(b) Splenic artery aneurysm
(c) Gastroduodenal artery aneurysm
(d) Middle colic artery thrombosis
The following lines have been taken from this article . the whole credit goes to the author .
The splenic artery, because of its contiguity with the pancreas, is the vessel most commonly involved in pancreatitis. However, virtually all of the pancreatic and peripancreatic vessels can be affected.
The gastroduodenal and pancreatico-duodenal arteries are frequently involved, while the left gastric, hepatic and small intra-pancreatic branches are less often implicated.
Unlike arterial thrombosis, thrombosis of the splenic vein is much more common, being reported in .5-45% of patients with pancreatitis. Thrombosis involving the portal and superior mesenteric veins is rare and if present, should raise the suspicion of either a septic stage of severe necrotising pancreatitis or a pancreatic head malignancy.
The article states that embolisation of the middle colic artery infact is used in the management of the pancreatitis induced complications such as hemorrhage from pancreatic and peripancreatic vessels .
P.S : This question was asked in the UPSC CMS 2007 medical entrance paper . click here to view all the mcqs from that paper with answers .