a. 3 cm
b. 4 cm
c. 5 cm
d. 6 cm
2q: In the United States, the most common organism responsible for mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta is ?
3q: The most common peripheral artery aneurysm is ?
4q: The compartment most commonly affected in a lower leg compartment syndrome is the ?
a. Anterior compartment
b. Lateral compartment
c. Deep posterior compartment
d. Superficial posterior compartment
5q: The preferred procedure for treatment of typical occlusive disease of the aorta and both iliac arteries is ?
a. Endovascular stenting
b. Extra-anatomic bypass
c. Aortoiliac endarterectomy
d. Aortobifemoral bypass
6q: What is the treatment of acute embolic mesenteric ischemia ?
d. Operative embolectomy
7q: The treatment of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia is ?
b. Catheter infusion of papaverine
c. Stenting to prevent further spasm
d. Operative bypass of the superior mesenteric artery
8q: The most accurate diagnostic test with the lowest morbidity in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis is ?
b. CT scan
c. Magnetic resonance angiography
d. Renal systemic renin index
9q: The bypass graft of choice in children with renovascular hypertension is ?
a. Saphenous vein
b. Hypogastric artery
10q: Which of the following is the most prevalent inherited risk factor for peripheral vascular disease ?
a. Elevated HDL
b. Elevated LDL
c. Elevated VLDL
d. Elevated Lipoprotein a (Lp(a))
11q: Which of the following statements regarding carotid body tumors is true ?
a. Occur more commonly in patients who live at high altitudes
b. Require resection of the underlying carotid artery with reconstruction for cure
c. Are associated with catecholamine release
d. Are usually malignant
12q: Rest pain seen with occlusive peripheral vascular disease in the lower extremity most commonly occurs in ?
a. The buttock
b. The quadriceps
c. The calf muscles
d. The Metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP)
13q: A patient with a creatinine of 1.8 who is scheduled for angiography should
a. Not proceed with angiography
b. Be given oral acetylcysteine the day before and day of study
c. Be given lasix and a fluid bolus after the study
d. Have a dialysis catheter inserted at the time of the study
14q: Which of the following can be used in the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia ?
a. Statin drugs
d. Folic acid
15q: The best initial treatment for a groin pseudoaneurysm after angiography is ?
a. Surgical repair
b. Ultrasound-guided compression
c. Ultrasound-guided injection of thrombin
16q: Which of the following statements concerning cilostazol is true ?
a. It is more effective than pentoxifylline in the treatment of claudication
b. It works by inhibiting platelets and lowering LDL cholesterol
c. It works with in 2 weeks of starting the drug
d. It should not be used in patients with acute coronary syndromes
17q: The most common nonatherosclerotic disease of the internal carotid artery is ?
a. Thrombosis from protein C deficiency
c. Takayasu arteritis
d. Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD)
18q: What is the earliest detectable lesion of atherosclerosis ?
a. Fatty streak
b. Fibrous plaques
c. Subendothelial monocytes
d. Platelet deposition
19q: Carotid artery dissection is best treated by ?
a. Surgical resection and reconstruction with graft
b. Surgical resection and reconstruction with vein
c. Endoluminal stenting
20q: A patient who develops dizziness, drop attacks and diplopia with exercise most likely has ?
a. Carotid stenosis
b. Subclavian steal syndrome
c. Coronary subclavian steal syndrome
d. Coronary artery disease
21q: A patient who is taking metformin has an increased risk of which of these complications after angiography ?
a. Renal failure
c. Lactic acidosis
22q: Which of the following is a risk factor specific for peripheral vascular disease ?
a. Family history
c. Elevated HDL
d. Elevated LDL
23q: Cholesterol lowering drugs (statin therapy) should be recommended in patients with peripheral vascular disease who have ?
a. HDL less than 40 mg/dl
b. Triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL
c. LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than 130 mg/dL
d. Cholesterol greater than 185 mg/dL
24q: The osmolality of most contrast agents used for angiography is ?
a. 100-300 mOsm
b. 300-600 mOsm
c. 600-900 mOsm
d. 900-1200 mOsm
25q: All patients with peripheral vascular disease should have medical treatment aimed to achieve which of the following goal ?
a. Statin therapy to lower CRP to less than 1.0
b. Treatment of blood pressure to attain 130/85 mm Hg
c. Management of diabetes to obtain glycohemoglobin level less than 12%
d. Niacin to achieve normal homocysteine levels
26q: An Ankle-brachial index of 0.7 ?
a. is normal
b. indicates an incrased risk of CVS events
c. is indicative of moderate ischemia with rest pain
d. is indicative of severe ischemia with a risk for gangrene
27q: The primary event in the occlusion of a coronary artery is ?
a. Arterial narrowing at a bifurcation site
b. Development of an atrial arrythmia
c. Episodes of hypotension
d. Episodes of plaque disruption
28q: The most common presenting symptom of acute arterial occlusion is ?
29q: Platelets are derived from ?
30q: Chronic occlusion of the popliteal artery may produce ?
a. Brawny discoloration of the skin over the ankle
b. Dilated collateral vessels in calf and foot
c. Pain in the calf that is relieved by dependency
d. Ulceration over the medial malleolus
31q: The most common type of aneurysm is ?
32q: Each of the following is characteristic of causalgia of an extremity except ?
b. Burning pain
d. Skin hypersensitivity
33q: What is the first change encountered in acute mesenteric ischemia ?
a. Severe periumbilical pain
b. Elevation of creatine phosphokinase levels
d. Metabolic acidosis
34q: A 55 year old woman presents 6 days after experiencing an acute arterial occlusion in her left leg. After she undergoes an arterial reconstruction, pulses return to her foot, but 6 hours postoperatively, her urine becomes reddish brown and is found by dipstick to be positive for hemoglobin. Which of the following treatments would be absolutely contraindicated for this patient ?
a. Administration of mannitol
b. Administration of glucose and insulin
c. Administration of sodium bicarbonate
d. Administration of ammonium chloride
35q: Which of the following statements concerning patients who have an asymptomatic bruit located at the carotid bifurcation is true ?
a. Approximately 50% of these bruits originate in the external carotid artery
b. The loudest bruits are heard when the stenosis is tightest
c. If these patients develop symptoms, transient ischemis attacks usually precede frank strokes
d. Almost 50% of these patients will develop neurologic symptoms within 5 years
36q: Which of the following treatments is contraindicated in the management of frostbite of an extremity?
a. Rapid warming in warm water
b. Antibiotics and tetanus antiserum
c. Elevation of the extremity
d. Early amputation of demarcated areas
37q: A major difference between congenital and acquired arteriovenous fistulas is ?
a. The location affected
b. The hemodynamic stresses involved
c. The character of the bruits
d. The rates of surgical cure
38q: All of the following statements concerning popliteal artery aneurysms are true except ?
a. Approximately 50% are associated with aneurysms at other sites
b. Rupture into the popliteal space is a frequent complication
c. Associated thrombosis carries a high risk of amputation
d. Associated distal embolization may result in tissue loss