Monday, January 14, 2008

19 - surgery mcqs - 151 to 160

Cranio Facial Dysjunction is seen in

a. Lefort I Fracture

b. Lefort II Fracture

c. Lefort III Fracture

d. None of the above

Answer : (C ) Lefort III

Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 667

152) All are true regarding Mobius Syndrome except

a. Bilateral Abductor Palsy

b. Bilateral Facial Palsy

c. Both

d. None

Answer : ( d)

Reference: Nelson 15th Edition Table 266.1 and Chapter 574

Ä The distinctive features of Möbius syndrome are congenital facial paresis and abduction weakness.

o The facial palsy is commonly bilateral, frequently asymmetric, and often incomplete, tending to spare the lower face and platysma. Ectropion, epiphora, and exposure keratopathy may develop.

o The abduction defect may be unilateral or bilateral. It is usually complete, and esotropia is common.

Ä The etiology is unknown. Whether the primary defect is maldevelopment of cranial nerve nuclei, hypoplasia of the muscles, or a combination of central and peripheral factors is unclear. Gestational factors such as trauma, illness, and intake of various drugs, particularly thalidomide, have been implicated. Some familial cases have been reported. Associated developmental defects may include ptosis, palatal and lingual palsy, hearing loss, pectoral and lingual muscle defects, micrognathia, syndactyly, supernumerary digits, or the absence of hands, feet, fingers, or toes. Surgical correction of the esotropia is indicated in selected cases, and any attendant amblyopia should be treated.

Ä In newborns, the first symptom is an inability to suck. Excessive drooling and strabismus (crossed eyes) may occur. Other symptoms may include lack of facial expression; inability to smile; feeding, swallowing, and choking problems; eye sensitivity; motor delays; high or cleft palate; hearing problems; and speech difficulties. Deformities of the tongue, jaw, and limbs, such as club foot and missing or webbed fingers, may also occur.

Ä Most patients have low muscle tone, especially in the upper body. Mental retardation may also occur. As children get older, lack of facial expression and inability to smile become the dominant visible symptoms.

153) Percentage of Cold nodes that are malignant

a. About 20 %

b. About 50 %

c. About 75 %

d. 100 %

Answer : ( a) About 20 %

Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 785

154) Most common form of External abdominal hernia is

a. Inguinal

b. Paraumbilical

c. Incisional

d. Femoral

Answer : (a) Inguinal

Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 1274

155) Enterofaecal Fistula which results in leakage of feces is due to

a. Persistent Omphalo Mesenteric Duct

b. Patent Urachus

c. Both

d. None

Answer : ( a) Persistent Omphalo Mesenteric Duct

Reference: Surgical Short Cases, S.Das, 2nd Edition Page 235

Omphalomesenteric Duct Remnants.

Ä Remnants of the omphalomesenteric (vitelline) duct may present as abnormalities related to the abdominal wall. In the fetus, the omphalomesenteric duct connects the fetal midgut to the yolk sac. This normally obliterates and disappears completely. However, any or all of the fetal duct may persist and give rise to symptoms.

Ä An umbilical polyp is a small excrescence of omphalomesenteric duct mucosa that is retained in the umbilicus. Such polyps resemble umbilical granulomas except that they do not disappear after silver nitrate cauterization. They may be associated with a persistent vitelline duct or umbilical sinus. Appropriate treatment is excision of the mucosal remnant.

Ä Umbilical sinuses result from the continued presence of the umbilical end of the omphalomesenteric duct. These resemble umbilical polyps, but close inspection reveals the presence of a sinus tract deep to the umbilicus. The morphology of the sinus tract can be readily delineated with a sinogram. Treatment is excision of the sinus.

Ä Persistence of the entire omphalomesenteric duct is heralded by the passage of enteric contents from the umbilicus. This is seen in the early neonatal period and should be treated promptly with laparotomy and excision of the duct to avoid intussusception or volvulus.

Ä Cystic remnants of the omphalomesenteric duct may persist and be asymptomatic for long periods of time. The cysts may be connected to the ileum with a fibrous band that is a remnant of the obliterated omphalomesenteric duct. Patients may present with acute volvulus and intestinal obstruction or with acute abdomen because of cyst infection. The cysts usually remain undiagnosed until operation, at which time they should be excised.

Ä Meckel's diverticulum results when the intestinal end of the omphalomesenteric duct persists. This is a true diverticulum of the intestine with all layers of the intestinal wall represented.

156) Paralytic Ileus is due to all except

a. Peritonitis

b. Hyperkalemia

c. Fracture Spine or Ribs

d. Abdominal Surgery

Answer : ( b) Hyperkalemia

Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 1201

157) Mycotic aneurysm is an aneurysm infected because of :

a. Fungal infection.

b. Blood borne infection (intravascular)

c. Infection introduced from outside (extravascular)

d. Both intravascular & extravascular infection.

Answer (b) Blood borne infection (intravascular)

Reference: Harrison 16th Edition Page 1481 and Oxford Textbook of Medicine Chapter 7.7.7

158) Laryngocele arises as a herniation of laryngeal mucosa through the following membrance:

a. Thyrohyoid.

b. Criciothyroid.

c. Crico-tracheal.

d. Crisosternal.

Answer a Thyrohyoid.

Reference: A Concise textbook of Surgery, 3rd Edition Page 623

159) The treatment of choice for the management of carcinoma of the anal canal is :

a. Abdomino perineal resection.

b. Primary radiotherapy.

c. Combined radio-and chemotheraphy.

d. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and local excision.

Answer (c) Combined radio-and chemotheraphy.

Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 1271

160) Which of the following drugs is not a part of the ‘Triple Therapy’ immunosuppression for post renal transplant patients?

a. Cyclosporine.

b. Azathioprine.

c. FK 506.

d. Prednisolone.

Answer (c) FK 506.

Reference: Tripathi 5th Edition Page 790 and Sabistons 15th Edition Chapter 20

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